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Dam Instrument/ Bendungan

 

WELL-PLANNED AND IMPLEMENTED MONITORING IS AN ESSENTIALCOMPONENT OF SUCCESSFUL DAM CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION. DAM MONITORING IS SUBJECT TO NUMEROUS REGULATIONS AND IN MANY COUNTRIES IT IS REGULATED BY STRICT ADMINISTRATIVE STANDARDS.


The primary function of monitoring is to ensure the longevity and safety of a dam. Monitoring must enable the timely detection of any behavior that could deteriorate the dam, potentially result in its shutdown or failure, in order to implement corrective measures. Monitoring also plays a fundamental role during construction. It enables the verifi cation of design hypotheses and may affect the construction rate of certain works. Monitoring is particularly crucial during the initial filling of the reservoir, a critical phase in the life of a dam.
INSTRUMENTATION: THE KEYSTONE OF MONITORING
Instrumentation is used to accurately quantify certain parameters of structural behavior over time and to monitor their rate of change. Selection Criteria for Instrumentation Three major criteria guide instrument selection:

  • Reliability of the measurements obtained (accuracy, resolution, precision and drift)
  • Instrument longevity, supported by numerous references
  • Ease of readout automation, essential for efficient data collection and interpretation

Monitoring involves numerous steps including direct or remote visual inspection as well as topographical
measuring and instrumentation.
The scope of the monitoring methods employed depends on the potential risk associated with dam and
site characteristics.

Such characteristics include:

  • Dam height and type
  • Extent of potential damage to people and structures located in fl ood zone
  • Reservoir and spillway capacity
  • Site seismicity
  • Foundation weakness zones

Types of Measurement
The types of measurement to be carried out as well as instrument location must be selected according to the particular conditions of the foundation and of the dam itself. Nonetheless, there are certain general guidelines to follow for instrumentation selection.
DAM FOUNDATIONS
The following are the main points to verify:
Foundation Hydraulics

  • Relative impermeability between the foundations and reservoir perimeter
  • Cutoff structure effi ciency
  • Efficiency of the downstream drainage networks

These behaviors can be monitored with the following instruments:

  • Piezometers
  • Flow meters

Foundation Deformation
Settlement and horizontal deformation behavior can be evaluated once measurements are complete. Particular attention must be paid to zones where signifi cant differential settlement could lead to fi ssuring in the structure.

Instruments used:

  • Borehole extensometers
  • Settlement gauges
  • Inclinometers

Foundation Stability
Instruments used for monitoring potential shear zones:

  • Jointmeters
  • In-place inclinometers

Monitoring Instruments for Specifi c Applications In addition to offering a complete line of monitoring instruments for new dams, Roctest Telemac designs and builds instrumentation equipment for existing dams and adapts these instruments to specific applications.
OLDER DAMS
Many instruments are designed to be installed while a dam is under construction and cannot be incorporated into existing works. This poses a problem mainly for concrete dams with fi ssuring problems.
The instruments used include the following:
For Crack Opening Variations

  • Single-point or triaxial surface-mount jointmeters, such as the RTF, which can be installed under water on the upstream side of the dam.
  • BOF-EX borehole extensometer

For Variations in Stress and Temperature

  • CIUS instrumented cylinder
  • VBS stress meters

DESTRESSING A DAM BY SAWING
Dam-sawing techniques have been developed to solve the problem created by the swelling of old concrete due to the reaction between certain cements and aggregates. Roctest Telemac has designed customized  instrumentation based on the BOF-EX borehole extensometer and stress variations measurement to monitor stress release and internal deformations provoked by the saw-cut.
IMPROVING STABILITY OR HEIGHTENING A CONCRETE DAM
Improving stability or heightening a concrete dam requires the installation of permanent high-capacity tieback anchors. To monitor these anchors, Roctest Telemac has designed high-capacity vibrating wire load cells. Tailing Dams
Tailing dams constructed with hydraulic fi ll are built near the equilibrium limit and require close monitoring. The main measurements required for dam stability analysis and slide prevention are pore pressure,  settlement and lateral deformation.
Instruments used:

  • Piezometers
  • Settlement gauges
  • Inclinometer probes and in-place inclinometers

Automated Data Acquisition and Processing
The collection and analysis of large quantities of data, especially over long distances, requires centralized and automated measuring techniques. Results are more accurate and data can be processed more rapidlythus enabling efficient alarm systems to be implemented when predetermined thresholds are exceeded. It is practically impossible to consider the instrumentation of a major dam without automated data acquisition systems. Roctest Telemac’s SENSLOG allows economical data logging and can be readily connected to multi-node networks for real-time monitoring. Data acquisition centers are easily user-confi gured through a highlevel “soft” instrument control language. This language supports full diversity in connected device types, measurement intervals, data conversion, statistical processing, and strategies for alarm control, and logging.

 

source : roctest-group

 

NEWSLETTER

 
 

TESTIMONIALS

B2TKS

B2TKS
Sangat jarang perusahaan seperti ini di Indonesia!  Mereka terus-menerus mengikuti perkembangan inovasi engineering test & measurement, “nyambung” berdiskusi teknis dan berpengalaman, memiliki visi pengembangan teknologi pengukuran, pengujian, inspeksi dan monitoring.(Dr.-Ing. Ir. May Isnan - NDT Specialist B2TKS-BPPT)

Chevron

Chevron
Tim kerja Alat Uji dapat diandalkan. Sangat bagus dalam implementasi di lapangan. Secara umum kami puas dengan services nya!(Andre - HSE Chevron)

BPPT

BPPT
Saya baru sekali ini bertemu perusahaan engineering yang eksis seperti ini di Indonesia.  Sangat terbantu dengan solusi yang diberikan, sangat memuaskan!(Muksin Saleh, ST., MT - Fuel Conversion and Pollution Control Specialist, B2TE - BPPT)

BALITBANG

BALITBANG
Sistem monitoring yang disuplai oleh Alat Uji adalah yang tertinggi ratingnya sampai dengan saat ini dibandingkan sistem lain yang pernah kami miliki, Dengan sistem monitoring dari Alat Uji, Pengujian kami jadi lebih terkontrol karena ada visualisasi di sistemnya. (Gatot Sukmara - Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan, Departemen Pekerjaan Umum)